The process of transporting an item or goods, usually through the mail is known as Shipping and Logistics. It can also be defined as a very basic, way of getting an item from one place to another, or from one person to another. Fulfillment is the process of taking an order and executing it by making it ready for delivery to its intended customer. Fulfillment is a complement of shipping and logistics. This is because fulfillment prepares shipping and logistics.
The term shipping originally referred to transport by sea, but it is extended in American English to refer to transport by land or air as well. “Logistics”, a term borrowed from the military environment, is also fashionably used in the same sense.
There are four major types of goods or commodity shipment and
Road transport and Rail freight transport
Land or “ground” shipping can be by train or by truck. In air and sea shipments, ground transport is required to take the cargo from its place of origin to the airport or seaport and then to its destination because it is not always possible to establish a production facility near ports due to limited coastlines of countries. Ground transport is typically more affordable than air, but more expensive than sea especially in developing continent like Africa where inland infrastructure is not efficient. Shipment of cargo by trucks, directly from the shipper’s place to the destination, is known as a door to door shipment.
Much shipping is done by actual ships. An individual nation’s fleet and the people that crew it are referred to as its merchant navy or merchant marine. Merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide. On rivers and canals, barges are often used to carry bulk cargo.
Cargo was transported by air in specialized cargo aircraft and in the luggage compartments of passenger aircraft. Air freight is typically the fastest mode for long distance freight transport, but also the most expensive.
Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport refers to shipments that involve more than one mode. More specifically it usually refers to the use of intermodal shipping containers that are easily transferred between ship, rail and truck.
Types and terms of shipping and Logistics
Free on board (FOB):
the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location (and on board the vessel). Costs paid by the exporter include load, lash, secure and stow the cargo, including securing cargo not to move in the ships hold, protecting the cargo from contact with the double bottom to prevent slipping, and protection against damage from condensation. This term also declares that where the responsibility of shipper ends and that of buyer starts. The exporter is bound to deliver the goods at his cost and expense. In this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic are borne by the importer.
Carriage and freight (C&F or CFR or CNF):
Insurance is payable by the importer, and the exporter pays all expenses incurred in transporting the cargo from its place of origin to the port/airport and ocean freight/air freight to the port/airport of destination. For example, C&F Lagos (the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Lagos). Most of the governments ask their exporters to trade on these terms to promote their exports worldwide such as Nigeria, India and China. Many of the shipping carriers (such as UPS, DHL, FedEx) offer guarantees on their delivery times. These are known as GSR guarantees or “guaranteed service refunds”; if the parcels are not delivered on time, the customer is entitled to a refund.
Cost, insurance and freight (CIF):
Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. For example, at Lagos, the exporter pays the ocean shipping or air freight costs to Lagos including the insurance of cargo. This also states that responsibility of the shipper ends at the Lagos port.
The term “best way” generally implies that the shipper will choose the carrier who offers the lowest rate (to the shipper) for the shipment. In some cases, however, other factors, such as better insurance or faster transit time will cause the shipper to choose an option other than the lowest bidder